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Response to Instruction and Intervention

A Cultural, Linguistic, and Ecological Framework for Response to Intervention with English Language Learners (PDF)

The tool from the National Center for Culturally Responsive Education Systems Training (NNCREST) provides an overview of how RtI can be understood and used with diverse learners. It is useful for practitioners because it offers insight into how RtI can extend beyond a policy prescription in order to truly be responsive to all learners.

Esparza Brown, J., and Doolittle, J. A Cultural, Linguistic, and Ecological Framework for Response to Intervention with English Language Learners. Washington, DC:  Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education, 2008.

Back to the Future: A Critique of Response to Intervention’s Social Justice Views (ARTICLE)

The article critically engages with the assumptions embedded in RtI. It argues that while the policy may appear to be a comprehensive intervention system it does not directly engage with structural and contextual inequities in school districts. It is an important article for practitioners because it provides a critical lens to understand how policy alone cannot assure equitable outcomes.

Artiles, A. J., Bal, A., and King-Thorius, K. “Back to the Future: A Critique of Response to Intervention’s Social Justice Views.” Theory Into Practice, 49, 2010: 250–257.

Center on Response to Intervention (WEBSITE)

Provides technical assistance to states and districts in building the capacity of states to assist districts in implementing proven models for RtI.

Cultural Considerations with Response to Intervention Models (ARTICLE)

The article applies a culturally responsive lens to RtI structure and implementation guidelines. It is useful for practitioners who seek to understand how uniform policies can be more responsive to and effective with diverse learners.

Klinger, J. K., and Edwards, P. A. “Cultural Considerations with Response to Intervention Models." Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 2006: 108-117.

Determining Specific Learning Disability Eligibility Using Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI²) (DOC)

Discusses how RtI² helps reduce disproportionate representation of certain groups of students identified as needing special education services through the use of early intervention; also describes how RtI² can be part of the process to identify students with specific learning disabilities.

California Department of Education (August 2009).

Multi-Tiered System of Supports (Website)

California Department of Education.  A framework that aligns Response to Instruction and Intervention with the Common Core State Standards and the systems necessary for academic, behavior, and social success.

Prevention of Disproportionate Special Education Representation Using Response to Intervention (Overview) (PDF)

Describes the Response-to-intervention process and procedures are designed to improve achievement and behavioral outcomes through prevention and early identification and treatment. RTI procedures and processes, featuring evidence-based practices, have significant potential for improving achievement and behavior and for reducing minority referrals to special education while improving effective instruction. Daniel J. Reschly (2009) National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Response to Intervention (RTI) and Disproportionality Equity Forum (RECORDING)

Features a panel discussion on the intersection of RtI and disproportionality in special education. NYU Steinhardt (2009).