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Achievement Gap

The Achievement Gap and the Discipline Gap: Two Sides of the Same Coin? (ARTICLE)

The article provides an overview of the issues surrounding racial and ethnic disproportionality in school suspensions. It is useful to practitioners that seek to complicate commonly held ideas about the effectiveness of school discipline practices.

Gregory, A., Skiba, R. J., and Noguera, P. A. “The Achievement Gap and the Discipline Gap: Two Sides of the Same Coin?” Educational Researcher, 39(1), 2010: 59-68.

C.A.R.E.: Strategies for Closing the Achievement Gap (PDF)

This resource from Culture Abilities Resilience Effort (C.A.R.E.) provides recommendations for incorporating research on racial and ethnic disparities in education to everyday practice.

National Education Association. 2003. C.A.R.E.: Strategies for Closing the Achievement Gap. Washington, DC.

Closing the Achievement Gap: From Research to Practice (BOOK)

The book explores the plethora of research surrounding the achievement gap in America. It is useful for practitioners because it highlights the work of schools and districts that have reduced the gap.

Noguera, P. and W. Boykin. Closing the Achievement Gap: From Research to Practice.  Washington, D.C.: ASCD, 2011.

Multi-Tiered System of Supports (Website)

California Department of Education.  A framework that aligns Response to Instruction and Intervention with the Common Core State Standards and the systems necessary for academic, behavior, and social success.

Race in the Schoolyard: Negotiating the Color Line in Classrooms and Communities (BOOK)

The book explores how race is often not explicitly talked about in schools yet has a profound effect on how schools are organized, how students and teachers interact and how implicit lessons of race are taught. The book is an important tool for practitioners who seek to become more reflective on how their everyday interactions in schools are embedded within the historical and racial fabric of America.

Lewis, A. Race in the Schoolyard: Negotiating the Color Line in Classrooms and Communities. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2003

Race, Inequality and Educational Accountability: The Irony of "No Child Left Behind" (ARTICLE)

The article explores how the No Child Left Behind Act, a well intentioned law, has led to unintended consequences that have further marginalized the students it intended to help. The article is relevant to practice because it provides insight into how broad educational reforms can be perverted in practice and offers practitioners a bird’s eye view of how policy can perpetuate, rather than mitigate, inequalities.

Darling-Hammond, L. “Race, Inequality and Educational Accountability: The Irony of "No Child Left Behind". Race, Ethnicity and Education, 10(3), 2007: 245-260.

Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Education: What Do We Know, How Do We Know It, and What Do We Need to Know? (ARTICLE)

The article explores existing research on educational inequities. The article offers practitioners a comprehensive understanding of when, where and how educational inequity manifests and how it has been understood in research.

Farkas, George. "Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Education: What Do We Know, How Do We Know It, and What Do We Need to Know?" Teachers College Record 105(6), 2003.

Racial Transformation and the Changing Nature of Segregation (PDF))

The resource highlights how racial segregation in schools is still a relevant and consequential issue in America. The resource provides practitioners with a critical lens as they think about the demographic trends in the districts they work in.

Orfield, G., and Lee, C. “Racial Transformation and the Changing Nature of Segregation.” Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. Cambridge, MA., 2006.

Understanding and Responding to the Disenfranchisement of Latino Males: Invisible No More (BOOK)

The book provides a comprehensive overview of health, social, emotional etc. issues facing Latino males in America. It is useful for practitioners who seek to further understand prevalent issues affecting Latino males in America.

Noguera, P., Aida Hurtado and Edward Fergus Eds. Understanding and Responding to the Disenfranchisement of Latino Males: Invisible No More.  New York: Routledge, 2011.

Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? (BOOK)

The book explores how racial identities manifest in public settings and how the expression of identity is received and understood by others. The book is useful for practitioners who seek to gain clarity on how to understand and talk about racial differences in honest and effective ways.

Tatum, B. Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? Basic Books: New York, 2003.